Economic growth depends critically on access to reliable energy. However, in much of the world, access to energy remains low and supply is often unreliable. At the same time, the world’s energy choices are leading to levels of pollution that are substantially shortening people’s lives and causing climate change. The energy and growth challenge requires identifying solutions to these problems of access to inexpensive and reliable energy, while limiting environmental damage and guarding against disruptive climate change. In his Friedman Forum talk, Michael Greenstone explored key energy trends and outlined both the market and technology forces at play to meet this challenge.