Through late April, women experienced a decline in employment that was 4 percentage points larger than men (22 percent for women to 18 percent for men). The gap has grown slightly to 5 percentage points through mid-May. These trends are in sharp contrast to prior recessions where men experienced larger job declines. Why are women being hit harder in the Pandemic Recession? The answer is not clear. One obvious factor is that traditionally female dominated industries, such as retail, leisure and hospitality industries, are being hit harder by the recession. The authors find, however, that less than 0.5 percentage points of the 4-5 percentage point difference in employment losses between men and women can be explained by industry. In other words, across industry sectors, women are experiencing larger job declines relative to men.
More research using household-level surveys with additional demographic variables can explore this critical question. It may be that other factors of the pandemic, such as an increased need for childcare, will explain some portion of the gender gap in employment losses during the recession.