We study how reported sexism in the population affects American women. Fixed-effects and TSLS estimates show that higher prevailing sexism where she was born (background sexism) and where she currently lives (residential sexism) both lower a woman’s wages, labor force participation and ages of marriage and childbearing. We argue that background sexism affects outcomes through the influence of previously-internalized norms, and that estimated associations regarding specific percentiles and male versus female sexism suggest that residential sexism affects labor market outcomes through prejudice-based discrimination by men, and non-labor market outcomes through the influence of current norms of other women.

More Research From These Scholars

BFI Working Paper Jul 5, 2018

Divergent Paths: A New Perspective on Earnings Differences Between Black and White Men Since 1940

Patrick Bayer, Kerwin Kofi Charles
Topics:  Employment & Wages, Economic Mobility & Poverty
BFI Working Paper Apr 2, 2018

The Transformation of Manufacturing and the Decline in U.S. Employment

Kerwin Kofi Charles, Erik Hurst, Mariel Schwartz
Topics:  Economic Mobility & Poverty, Employment & Wages, K-12 Education, Industrial Organization, Fiscal Studies, Financial Markets