The Effects of Sexism on American Women: The Role of Norms vs. Discrimination

August 2018
Kerwin Kofi Charles, Jonathan Guryan, and Jessica Pan

We study how reported sexism in the population affects American women. Fixed-effects and TSLS estimates show that higher prevailing sexism where she was born (background sexism) and where she currently lives (residential sexism) both lower a woman's wages, labor force participation and ages of marriage and childbearing. We argue that background sexism affects outcomes through the influence of previously-internalized norms, and that estimated associations regarding specific percentiles and male versus female sexism suggest that residential sexism affects labor market outcomes through prejudice-based discrimination by men, and non-labor market outcomes through the influence of current norms of other women.

The working paper can be found here.

The Research Brief of this working paper can be found here. 

You can also view the working paper through SSRN here.